L (uniformly distributed load) etc. The function of the Load Combinations tab in the Composite Steel Beam module is the same as in other beam modules. 3 If you have no settelment conserns you will not require reiforceing, no settelment not bending of the slab no bending no tension not need for TENSION REIFORCMENT. It carries a service live load of 8. Dead load of earth fill over the box = Area x depth x density ­­ 1. Use steel covering of 25mm measure from center of bars. 5 kN/m 2 ;Weight of the roof: added as 1 kN/m load to the slab distributed load; Unit weight of concrete: 25 kN/m3; Weight of exterior infill walls: 8. Living room has recessed lighting, built-in speakers, gas fireplace, and hardwood flooring. Press alt + / to open this menu. The structure of the building is steel special moment frame. deep, were reinforced with Intermediate grade steel (yield stress. , buildings, bridges, dams). residential,commercial,industrial etc. The corresponding computational method is called plastic collapse. - Slabs Supported on Four Sides. The Load Transfer Mechanism Between the Reinforced Concrete Ribbed Slabs and Their Supporting Columns. 1 Reinforced concrete structures 1 1. C - 2011 Standard for Composite Steel Floor Deck - Slabs AmericAn nAtionAl stAndArds institute/ steel deck institute STEEL DECK s INSTITUTE ® The Steel Deck Institute has developed the material contained herein. Load Calculation On Column, Beam And Slab. Furthermore, the load computations can describe the needed robustness to accept/bear the load. Download Tags: concrete estimate template concrete estimate example concrete estim. authors: l g wills. 55 kg It is also defined as dead load. width for reinforced concrete under service loads for a dry air exposure. The living and dining rooms lie straight ahead, each distinguished by stepped ceilings and banks of windows. The design of the HFRC slabs-on-grade uses the values of thickness of the slab(h), width of the slab(b), joint spacing(w), grade of concrete and fibre type and dosage are assumed. Slabs shall be designed as simple or continuous spans under uniform loads • Section 5. imperial beam fixed loads load cases forces deflection. 1): Minimum of three continuous spans in each direction Successive span lengths centre ‐ to ‐ centre of supports in each direction shall not differ by more than one ‐ third of the longer span All loads shall be due to gravityonly and uniformly distributed over an entire panel The. Select RCC Design Mix: #N#20 mm Aggregates. Select Si unit: Select RCC Design Mix: #N#20 mm Aggregates. 2- Slab can carry any kind of loading like point load, UDL etc. 2 Loads on sidewalls. For an initial design or assessment of a reinforced concrete solid slab bridge, spreadsheet-based or hand calculations are typically used. Approximate and precise determination of yield lines using an illustrative example of a two-way load-bearing slab. 5% is found to be optimal based on cost and serviceability. Assumption 1- Slab is supported on all edges e. Calculation: Refer Table 2. It comes as three-sided, or just a deck slab implanted in the soil on either side. So, we can calculate slab load to be around 6 to 7 kN per square meter. Introducing voids to the soffit of a slab reduces dead weight and increases the efficiency of the concrete section. The simulation results have been used to develop an alternative analytical method to calculate the debonding strain and affective length for CFRP plate bond to concrete and subject to single shear. 4 Applied Axial Load For rectangular beams only, the program does allow the user to input an axial load applied at the beam’s gross cross section centroid. The living and dining rooms lie straight ahead, each distinguished by stepped ceilings and banks of windows. Determination of. General (Concrete properties, Load combination) RC beam design (ACI 318-05) RC column design ( Short column, Long column - non. Figure 4: Load vs deflection for the Tallinn slab. 40 )(60 ) 0. The impulse of this load (i. The exterior bay and first interior bay of the oneway slab along the strip indicated in -. Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 107 B = 1. – In this case, the stack of slabs will act as a solid beam. Width: 900mm None Standard Widths: In 100mm incriments. If the load is of a permanent nature, like dead load, earth load or water load, use the partial load factor of 1 for that load. 4) The total load on Slab (Dead load + Live load + Self-weight) Besides this above loading, the columns are also subjected to bending moments that have to be considered in the final design. 2 Load locations 56 9. Direct design method Simplified method of analysis for regular two ‐ way slab systems Limitations (Cl. Calculations of Slab Thickness and Dead Load & live load for building - Free download as PDF File (. Now let consider reinforced concrete slab in figure 5, this slab supported by four edge beam AB, BD, DC and CA, L2/L1=10/10=1, therefore, it is a two-way slab, for the two-way slab the distribution of load for beam AB will be as shown in figure 5, diagonal at 45 angle will be drawn from point A and point B, the tributary area will be triangle, in this example the tributary areas area equal for. – The composite slab shall be designed as a reinforced concrete slab with the steel deck acting as the positive reinforcement. 5 m Given:- Ly = 7. to flexure when slabs are continu-ous for two or more spans. slab, h, the applied loads, g and q and the degree of prestress, k. The unit weight of the structural steel is γ s = 490 lb/ft 3. Rib spacing of 600 to 1500 mm can be used. Intermediate values calculated include slab weight, ser. Living room has recessed lighting, built-in speakers, gas fireplace, and hardwood flooring. Live load is equal to LL (KN/m2) Floor finish, suppose 0. Assumption 1- Slab is supported on all edges e. Stefan Bernard1 INTRODUCTION It is commonly perceived that a concrete slab-on-grade can be designed to resist cracking under point loads based on thickness and the Modulus of Rupture (MOR) of the concrete matrix and that the peak in load resistance associated. 00(d - 750) Si Spacing should not exceed d/2 or 300 mm(12 in) for the additional reinforcements. Structural masonry walls in areas of high seismic risk are required to have additional horizontal bond beams to resist seismic loads. The proposed method of calculating reinforced-concrete slabs of slope protection for wave loads is simple and sufficiently accurate. 6 Detailing 4 2 Materials, structural failures and durability 9 2. - For slabs, supported on four sides and reinforced in both directions the distribution of loads shall be determined by the formula. It provides a great deal of flexibility in the placement of the structure’s vertical load-carrying elements ( i. A foundation in residential construction may consist of a footing, wall, slab, pier, pile, or a combination of these elements. For #9 and larger, the number is a nominal size (while the actual size is larger). Dwarf wall loading Wall is 150 mm hollow block wall (BS 648:1964, Schedule of weights of building materials) Load per m run (Point load) = 1. 2 Design for Bending 190 7. 5KN/sqm) 2)Live Load=Live load depends on the type of structure i. General rules for recording yield lines. It develops a bridge over the distance. ) and divide it by 27 (the number of cubic feet in a cubic yard). Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures ECIV 3016 LECTURE3: dead load calculation Second Term 2012 Take thickness of slab 26 cm 20 cm block + 6 cm topping slab Calculation of Dead Load Calculate the dead load of a one way ribbed slab of thickness = 23 cm Given: = 2. Practical Yield Line Design 4 Yield Line Design is a robust and proven design technique. Otherwise, the results are likely to be on the unconservative side. the main concern in your case should be dealing with lateral and uplift loads. Concrete is good in taking compression and steel is good in tension. How To Calculate Load Bearing Capacity Of RCC Slab. – In this case, the stack of slabs will act as a solid beam. the use of hooked steel fibres minimized the crack width of the link slab, and a debonded length. This free online calculator will calculate maximum length of slab, it is a free civil engineering tool. 5 x T x R x 25 Dead load of waist slab = b x t x 25 Live load = LL (KN/m2) Floor finish = suppose 0. Though the rcc designing is easy the rcc calculation. Measurement of early age concrete strength For early striking, the in-situ strength of the concrete should be determined. They investigated both the strain and stress approaches which used to determine the punching shear capacity of FRP reinforced concrete slabs by. Indian Standard PLAIN AND REINFORCED CONCRETE - CODE OF PRACTICE ( Fourth Revision ) ICS 91. The document also notes that a portion of the cracks in the structure will exceed these values. Dead load = D x 25 kN/m 2 (Where D is thickness of slab in m) Floor finish (Assumed as)= 1 to 2 kN/m 2. the breadth of the slab is already fixed and a unit breadth of 1m is used in the calculations, 2. Slab – Punching Shear (available in Reinforced Concrete FREE) – allows to calculate load barring capability of slab for punching shear, additionally in Reinforced Concrete PRO you may choose column section Rectangular / Circular and calculate Column Drop for slab. For an initial design or assessment of a reinforced concrete solid slab bridge, spreadsheet-based or hand calculations are typically used. residential,commercial,industrial etc. Many hand calculations will consider a punching shear force against a punching shear capacity force. org 2 | Page Slab type 2 will be used in discussion of the difference between edge supported panel and beams supported panel. txt) or read online for free. Assumption 1- Slab is supported on all edges e. Select either the Theoretical (required) reinforcement layout located in the RC slabs design or Design > Required reinforcement of RC slabs/walls - options > Calculations to evaluate the reinforcement area for plates or shells. 1 Precast prestressed slabs spanning between walls with composite. 00 psi Modulus of Elasticity E = 3,602,728. Dwarf wall loading Wall is 150 mm hollow block wall (BS 648:1964, Schedule of weights of building materials) Load per m run (Point load) = 1. 70 kN/m² Live Loads:. Engineering; Published 2016; DOI: 10. This free concrete calculator estimates the amount of concrete necessary for a project, and can account for different shapes and amounts of concrete. Estimate any other loads (e. mfd/mobile home at 3275 Wildcat Rd, Mariposa, CA 95338 on sale now for $225,000. 1: Unit Weight of the Construction Materials. Get fair costs for your SPECIFIC project requirements. If the edge of the slab is 25 feet away from the nearest shear wall,. The living and dining rooms lie straight ahead, each distinguished by stepped ceilings and banks of windows. of carriage length. Equivalent open aisle live load is = 200lbs ÷ 3ft. The slab segments can be fit together like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle to define a chosen load path. Factor of. So, we can calculate slab load to be around 6 to 7 kN per square meter. Results Tabs: This set of tabs provides detailed results for the current calculation. and a uniformly distributed live load of 550 lbs/ft. The thickness of the waist is taken as the slab thickness. fy = Grade of. G+11 storey live project is taken for analysis and design with load bearing walls. Complete from A-Z! 1) Project. 42 kips / ft. Slab openings of 450mm to 900mm For slabs with openings more than 450mm and less 900mm, at least one half the quantity of main steel reinforcement intersected by the opening is provided parallel to the main reinforcement bars on each side of the opening extending a length of development length L d beyond edges of the opening on both top and bottom slab face as shown in figure below. Uniformly distributed dead and live loading. Sometimes area covered by raft may be greater than the contact area depending on the bearing capacity of the soil underneath. The calculation of live loads has to be done by taking properties of. Loading: The dead load is based on the slope length of the stair flight. vi Chapter 3. This video explains how the slab load transfer to beams with tributary area of two way slab and one way slab with an example. A concrete slab is a common structural element of modern buildings, consisting of a flat, horizontal surface made of cast concrete. 92 Maximum Slab Moment - Randomly Disributed Load Pattern O E * h³ 3 * k 0. Calculate factored moment and shear force by considering the one-meter width of the slab. The living room features a fireplace and access to the columned porch, which also hosts a fireplace. Explore other calculators related to housing or building, as well as hundreds of other calculators addressing finance, math, fitness, health, and more. 2 Loads on sidewalls. 70 kN/m² Live Loads:. Reinforced Concrete Structures Reinforced Concrete Structure Design (RCSD) Tuesday Load-Bearing System Design (LBSD) Friday Assessment Criteria Activities Quantity Effects on Grading % Midterm Exam LBSD 1 20 Midterm Exam RCSD 1 20 Final Exam 1 60 RC 2. 60 kN/m² = 9. 52 kN/m Characteristic dead load; g k = 1. EXAMPLE 2-004 Reinforced Concrete Slab under Point Load 1. The similar calculations are performed for different slab thickness to obtain the axial load on column. If the edge of the slab is 25 feet away from the nearest shear wall,. 0m (3 ft) Additional reinforcements: A sk ≥ 0. Highway Girder and Slab Bridges. Students build on their understanding of basic mechanics to learn new concepts such as compressive stress and strain in concrete, while applying current ACI Code. 3- We know the. mfd/mobile home at 3275 Wildcat Rd, Mariposa, CA 95338 on sale now for $225,000. Reinforced concrete slab systems on steel decks Decking can serve as form, shoring and finished surface 18 gage 20 gage 22 gage Slab. Calculation of beam internal forces (shear force, bending moment) and deflections. For this design project you will work in your project groups to complete a partial design of an office building. EXAMPLE DESCRIPTION Fig. Precast columns are usually two stories high. Column: Column is defined as compression member which has an effective length greater than its least lateral dimension. Get fair costs for your SPECIFIC project requirements. Dead Load (s/w) WIND LOADS Calculation Reference PRECAST SLAB DESIGN Reinforced Concrete Design CHICAGO BUILDING CODE Created on 07 September 2014 58. The simulation results have been used to develop an alternative analytical method to calculate the debonding strain and affective length for CFRP plate bond to concrete and subject to single shear. Axial load carried. However, shear forces will develop between the slabs. Calculate relevant loading parameters automatically based on the structural geometry, mass, and selected building code provisions without the need for separate hand calculations. For span of 8m total load for bending moment 981kN and total load for shear force is 1154kN is considered. This, in turn, makes it simpler to calculate the number of yards you'll need for your concrete order. CODE SECTION DESIGN PROCEDURE CALCULATION STEP 1: Determine required steel area of the stud Assume that the load is applied directly over the stud and that a plate size of 3 in. Reinforced concrete slab systems on steel decks Decking can serve as form, shoring and finished surface 18 gage 20 gage 22 gage Slab. 3- We know the. Slab Thickness h = 6. Small development with only 14 lots remaining. Assumption 1- Slab is supported on all edges e. Strength of Reinforced Concrete ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf Columns: Small Eccentricity QIf a compression member is loaded parallel to its axis by a load P without eccentricity, the load P theoretically induces a uniform compressive stress over the cross-sectional area. Under its own load and applied load, the slab will try to bend as shown in the Figure 1. Concentrated loads are less straightforward to take into. DEFLECTION CALCULATIONS (from Nilson and Nawy) The deflection of a uniformly loaded flat plate, flat slab, or two-way slab supported by beams on column lines can be calculated by an equivalent frame method that cor-responds with the method for moment analysis. Concrete is a relatively brittle material that is strong under compression but less so in tension. Conventional RCC Slabs are done with respect to its design and construction aspects. At the present time, reinforced concrete is extensively used in a wide variety of engineering applications (e. feet of porch surface, so enter in the slab calculator 4" thickness by 3' width by 3' length. A slightly deeper section is required but these stiffer floors facilitate longer spans and provision of holes. 200 lbs/3ft. Box culverts is a program developed for the design and analysis of reinforced concrete box culverts used for underpasses, subways, and drainage works. Wind and Seismic Load on Gable Steel Frame Download Slab Punching Shear Calculation Spreadsheet Download Crack Width Calculation Spreadsheet Download Subframe Analysis Spreadsheet Download Concrete Creep, Shrinkage Factors and Tensile Strength Calculation Download One-way Slab Design Spreadsheet Download Rigorous One-way Slab Design Spreadsheet. Get fair costs for your SPECIFIC project requirements. EXAMPLE 2-004 Reinforced Concrete Slab under Point Load 1. 9A Multiple point loads 58 9. The weight of cement concrete in slab = Volume of concrete x Density of concrete = 7. • Precast concrete non-load bearing façade panels. Select Si unit: Select RCC Design Mix: #N#20 mm Aggregates. 92 Maximum Slab Moment - Randomly Disributed Load Pattern O E * h³ 3 * k 0. the breadth of the slab is already fixed and a unit breadth of 1m is used in the calculations, 2. 52 kN/m Characteristic dead load; g k = 1. ) and the slab is. concrete floor slabs on grade in buildings for heavy loads and is applicable to all elements responsible for military construction. Chapter 3: Reinforced Concrete Slabs and Beams, Part 1 Description: This application calculates bending moments using ACI coefficients, and determines the required reinforcing-bar spacing for continuous one way slabs. Load transfer from slab to beams is one of the most intriguing aspects of design, especially for beginners in the design of reinforced concrete structures. Many hand calculations will consider a punching shear force against a punching shear capacity force. Moment of inertia calculation for a general Section. The living room features a fireplace and access to the columned porch, which also hosts a fireplace. Bundled CAD drawings for RC slab support details. : Reinforced concrete slabs, bounded by elements which can develop horizontal reactions, have flexural capacities considerably in excess of the load calculated by an orthodox application of the yield-line analysis. 1 Reinforced concrete structures 9 2. The reason why, concrete and steel are used together to construct RCC slab, is in their individual properties as separate building materials and their individual limitation. This option is not available for T-beams. Specifically is construction of great significance for that special class of materials – sometimes. 2-Serviceability ( the structure in a good appearance such as " no Deformations – no Cracks". A foundation transfers the load of a structure to the earth and resists loads imposed by the earth. Load combinations according to Eurocode 2, and Eurocode 1. Step 3 – Using the IS 456 page 90 formula, calculate the area of steel present in tension and the thickness of the slab and thereafter find the moment of resistance of slab. Calculate the maximum wall load that the maximum wall load that a concrete slab-on-grade floor can support at a joint or at the center/interior of the slab. During the building process, the construction loads. the load is constant in every point of the slab; Firstly let's suppose that the slab has a thickness of: 100 mm and supports a constant load (permanent: screed, ceramic tiles + temporary: objects, people) of 250 kg/m^2 (2. The work is currently funded by the Australian Research Council through two ARC Large Grants, one on deflection control of reinforced concrete slabs and one on crack control in concrete structures. Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 107 B = 1. View 27 photos of this 3 bed, 2 bath, 1,792 Sq. 8:45 am – 9:30 am Session 2: Basic Load Rating Calculations 9:30 am – 9:45 am Break 9:45 am – 11:45 am Session 3: Example – Load Rating Concrete Slab Bridge Load Rating Seminar 2 11:45 am – 12:00 pm Questions 12:00 pm – 1:00 pm Lunch 1:00 pm – 2:30 pm Session 4: Example – Load Rating Steel Beam Bridges 2:30 pm – 2:45 pm Break. txt) or read online for free. fck = Grade of concrete. (200-mm) slabs or greater, dowels and/or the following methods are recommended for most highway applica­ tions8: If jointed reinforced pavements are used, dowels should be placed across joints to assist in load transfer. Column: Column is defined as compression member which has an effective length greater than its least lateral dimension. with the help of beams. o Determine development lengths for properly anchoring reinforcing steel in concrete and masonry. 1 Load transfer by dowels 60. 2 Loads on sidewalls. 5 kN/m 2 ;Weight of the roof: added as 1 kN/m load to the slab distributed load; Unit weight of concrete: 25 kN/m3; Weight of exterior infill walls: 8. Explore other calculators related to housing or building, as well as hundreds of other calculators addressing finance, math, fitness, health, and more. • We need to understand how to transfer the load from the slab to the beams, • For Case 1: • It is a square floor system, • The edge beams support the same triangular load, • The area of the slab portion that is supported by a particular beam is called the TRIBUTARY AREA. Metal dowels should be used in slabs that will carry heavy loads. 8 kg Total self weight of RCC slab = The weight of cement concrete + The weight of steel. This listing is a model home and the last remaining slab on grade in the development. cast-in-place, reinforced concrete highway bridge are discussed. The average thickness of the stair slab is used to calculate the dead load: h = 0. • Detailed calculation steps presented for verification. 5 where b is the breadth of slab. The mesh reinforcement in the slab is placed in the top with 1" covers. The design features are less than nucleus 2007. The dead load moments for the deck slab, parapets, and future wearing surface are tabulated in Table 2-1. Highway Girder and Slab Bridges. The ultimate load (also called collapse load) in this paper refers to the nominal load strength of the slab. Marshalls Bss Pressed Concrete Slab Natural 450mm X 50mmRectangular Concrete SlabConcrete Forms And Pouring A Slab The Family HandymanCement SlabConcrete Slabs Nashville Company TristarAnston Paving Slabs 300 X 300mm Concrete Square SlabConcrete Slab Cost Calculator 2019 With Installation Prices2019 Concrete Slab Costs Cost To Pour Per Square FootConcrete Slab Know Your MemeCauses Of. "Structural Engineering Forum of India, - SEFI - is a forum that enables and supports interaction among Structural Engineers and addresses the issues that concern them. Please practice hand-washing and social distancing, and check out our resources for adapting to these times. 1 Preliminary Analysis and Member Sizing 187 7. 5)Geotechnics (File Repository) Created on 15 August 2014 59. 3 Structural design 2 1. Cyclic lateral loads were applied using six hydraulic actuators; two at each floor. Sections of this page. Calculation of shears, moments and deflections for a simple supported beam, concentrated load at center metric statics loads forces beam Open calculation sheet. square short column subjected to axial services compressive load of. I am looking for information to calculate what is my required dowel rebar size and embedment length to dowel into a reinforced concrete slab? I know ACI has provisions for doweling a concrete column/pedestal into a footing, but I am trying to find something regarding doweling CMU rebar into a concrete slab. Flat Slabs; 3. residential,commercial,industrial etc. QIf the compressive load is applied a small distance e away from the longitudinal axis,. Shear Force = Vu = Wu×l / 2. The yield-line technique is the traditional method of determining the (flexural) collapse load of reinforced concrete flat slabs and steel plates. Living room has recessed lighting, built-in speakers, gas fireplace, and hardwood flooring. 1 Reinforced concrete structures 9 2. All design specifica-tions referenced in this chapter are based on 1994 AASHTO LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design) Bridge Design Specifications [1]. A slab’s collapse mechanism can be idealized as a series of segments connected by plastic. The experiment was followed by a parametric study of total load capacity calculation with nonlinear analysis which is supplemented by calculations. Various Load calculation on column, Beam & Slab: 1) Column Self Weight X Number of floors. • Precast concrete floor system, either: - Precast concrete beams and precast slabs (reinforced concrete or prestressed) with a composite in-situ topping or Precast concrete walls with precast concrete slab system Figure 3. 3 Point loads 57 9. Types of loads on the column 1- Self-weight of. See automatic and immediate results as design parameter change. reinforced concrete on the basis of the bending moments resisted by the contained tensile elements in a unit of concrete. planning, load calculation, analysis it by 2D modeling using STAAD-Pro 2003, design of composite floors and columns, design beams and design of foundation. General (Concrete properties, Load combination) RC beam design (ACI 318-05) RC column design ( Short column, Long column - non. Plain, unreinforced concrete is unsuitable for many structures as it is relatively poor. For this reason the most thorough approaches involve integrating curvatures. with the help of beams. Calculations of Slab Thickness and Dead Load & live load for building Calculations of Slab Thickness and Dead Load & live load for building. Since most buildings built in India are made of RC, the dominant set of examples used is of RC buildings. capacity of wood for loads that include snow, which is a short-term load Snow Loads 7/12 Cs 0. The specimens varied in the amount and orientation of the in-plane reinforcement provided. Box culverts is a program developed for the design and analysis of reinforced concrete box culverts used for underpasses, subways, and drainage works. Of bars and their dimensions in the one-meter span of the slab in a shorter direction. 85 0, 2 ' ksi in ksi c s y H c a in f ab A f from F C T = = ∑ = = (Assume that the steel reinforcement has yielded) a = 2. This totals. Loading: The dead load is based on the slope length of the stair flight. residential,commercial,industrial etc. o Determine development lengths for properly anchoring reinforcing steel in concrete and masonry. 3 What is the catch? Yield Line Design demands familiarity with failure patterns, i. 30 0 BIS 2000 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110002 July 2000 Price Rs 260. Filler slab technology is a simple and a very innovative technology for a slab construction. 125 x 1 x 2400 = 300 kg which is equivalent to 3 kN. Reinforced Concrete II Dr. Footing: 31,536 lbs. Fibre Reinforced Concrete slabs-on-grade may be analyzed by any method as long as they satisfy the strength and load requirements. a Problem geometry. the breadth of the slab is already fixed and a unit breadth of 1m is used in the calculations, 2. CALCULATE VERTICAL LOADS (concluded) 101,228 lbs. 1 Total vertical pressure on top slab = Imposed load + Dead load + Live load ­­ 1. 10 Calculation of load transfer 60 9. Various Load calculation on column, Beam & Slab: 1) Column Self Weight X Number of floors. How To Calculate Load Bearing Capacity Of RCC Slab. knowledge of how slabs. Load calculation. Curvature in reinforced concrete flat slabs in flexure lies between that of an uncracked and a fully cracked section. Slab can carry any kind of loading like point load , U. Design of Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams and Slabs Master of Science Thesis in the Master’s Programme Structural Engineering and Building Performance Design AMMAR ABID, KENNETH B. 70 kN/m² Live Loads:. Given below, the details of slab culvert :-Slab culvert is also called bridge culverts. for the walls. Johansen in the 1940s. Two way slabs with various support conditions. Qaisar Ali CE-320 Reinforced Concrete Design-I Introduction In reinforced concrete construction, slabs are used to provide flat, useful surfaces. See typical tasks and time to remove a concrete slab, along with per unit costs and material requirements. Seismic load ( ASCE 7-05, 10 Seismic load) Wind load ( ASCE 7-05 wind load , ASCE 7-10 wind load) Ice load ( ASCE 7-05 ice load) Structural Dynamics. reinforced concrete on the basis of the bending moments resisted by the contained tensile elements in a unit of concrete. Reinforced Concrete where DL = WL = WP = dead load live load or imposed load wind load water pressure earth pressure. local NPCA architectural precast concrete producer to discuss the connections for your specific project. Chapter 3: Reinforced Concrete Slabs and Beams, Part 1 Description: This application calculates bending moments using ACI coefficients, and determines the required reinforcing-bar spacing for continuous one way slabs. Calculate depth of stress block (a) 0. road construction estimating EXCEL spreadsheet. the load is constant in every point of the slab; Firstly let's suppose that the slab has a thickness of: 100 mm and supports a constant load (permanent: screed, ceramic tiles + temporary: objects, people) of 250 kg/m^2 (2. The empirical hand-calculation methods are accurate depending on the precision to which the slab was constructed relative to the actual slab design. For span of 8m total load for bending moment 981kN and total load for shear force is 1154kN is considered. The backfill load is normally well distributed over the top of the pipe. An index number derived from an. The worldwide use of reinforced concrete construction stems from the wide availability. However, the differences between the AMH slab and conventional reinforced concrete slabs imply that whether the above test results can be applied to the AMH slab is. To determine the cost to pour concrete slab, use the following tips: Amount. Floor slabs may also resist upward soil or hydrostatic pressure loadings. The loads are calculated per unit area (load/m 2). Calculate volumes for concrete slabs, walls, footers, columns, steps, curbs and gutters. 2 Loads on sidewalls. With time, a significant portion can exceed these values, and the width may double. 4 Design standards 2 1. 70 kN/m² Live Loads:. 00 psi Modulus of Elasticity E = 3,602,728. Living room has recessed lighting, built-in speakers, gas fireplace, and hardwood flooring. 7 Design for Torsion 222 8 Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 227. The experiment of twelve one-way RC slabs supported by shear-walls was carried out, and the calculations. Show the slab as shown in Figure 1. F = 1 KN/m² M20, fck = 20 MPa Fe415, Fy = 415 MPa Design Constants:- fck = 20 MPa Fy = 415 MPa Pt max. load of 450 lbs/ft. reinforced concrete on the basis of the bending moments resisted by the contained tensile elements in a unit of concrete. Each load case involves calculation of the resulting concrete stress and comparing the resulting stress with the allowable tensile stress in the concrete. Curvature in reinforced concrete flat slabs in flexure lies between that of an uncracked and a fully cracked section. The experiment made included a 2. EXAMPLE 2-004 Reinforced Concrete Slab under Point Load 1. All moment-resisting frames are located at the perimeter of the building. Slab thickness in inches or milli meter. The original theory and equations. Kakogiannis et al. (a) Load Bearing Masonry Buildings. 6 Cantilever Beams 221 7. with the help of beams. - 350m RC slab = 8. • Precast concrete floor system, either: - Precast concrete beams and precast slabs (reinforced concrete or prestressed) with a composite in-situ topping or Precast concrete walls with precast concrete slab system Figure 3. Now, assume Finishing load to be 1 kN per meter and superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter. title = "Fiber-reinforced concrete pavement design and material requirements", abstract = "Fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC) has been applied to concrete pavements for years, but there has been slow acceptance of a standard design process and appropriate material specifications for FRC. (200-mm) slabs or greater, dowels and/or the following methods are recommended for most highway applica­ tions8: If jointed reinforced pavements are used, dowels should be placed across joints to assist in load transfer. Get fair costs for your SPECIFIC project requirements. Complete from A-Z! 1) Project. A foundation in residential construction may consist of a footing, wall, slab, pier, pile, or a combination of these elements. The developed numerical model was further validated by comparison against the experimental results of the two-way RC slabs strengthened with CFRP plate. 2 Synthetic-fibre-reinforced concrete 56 9. 70 kN/m² Live Loads:. Concrete is the normalweight 3000 psi. Horizontal and vertical loads acting on a reinforced concrete frame structure. 3 Point loads 57 9. Uniformly distributed dead and live loading. CRANCKED SLAB STAIRS: • These stairs are very often used as avery often used as a special feature since the half space l di hlanding has no visible support being designed as a cantilever slab. LOAD FACTOR FOR BACKFILL RESISTING “FULL MANURE” CASE IS 0. All precast structural elements are assembled by means of special joints. Ribbed slabs are suitable for medium to heavy loads, can span reasonable distances, are very stiff and particularly suitable where the soffit is exposed. The spacing of the weld wire mat may vary from 6 inches to 18 inches. 125 x 1 x 2400 = 300 kg which is equivalent to 3 kN. The loaded back axle is negligible in this example. G+11 storey live project is taken for analysis and design with load bearing walls. Slabs and. The design of the HFRC slabs-on-grade uses the values of thickness of the slab(h), width of the slab(b), joint spacing(w), grade of concrete and fibre type and dosage are assumed. 92 Maximum Slab Moment - Randomly Disributed Load Pattern O E * h³ 3 * k 0. Normally, formwork is designed to support load from fresh concrete (including static pressure), their self weight, live load from working personnels, and load from other equipment. for the walls. SES # TOPICS; L1: Introduction: L2: Planning and Design Process: L3: Materials, Loads, and Design Safety: L4: Behavior and Properties of Concrete and Steel: L5: Wind and Earthquake Loads: L6: Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams for Flexure: L7: Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams for Flexure: L8: Design of Reinforced Concrete. 3- We know the. That calculation you have there will give you the UDL of the beams own weight. Assumption 1- Slab is supported on all edges e. Ransome was the first to use and patent in 1884 the deformed (twisted) bar. fibres are more effective when less steel reinforcements are used in the link slab. Load Calculation On Column, Beam And Slab. Calculate total factored load per unit strip (kN/m) Calculate the moments either directly (simply supported) or by using coefficient for continuous slabs; Calculate effective depth. Use the footing calculator to calculate the sides of the porch and the steps; Here is an example: This porch has 9 sq. Analysis and Design of Concrete T-Beams Spreadsheet Calculator : Deep Beams d > 1. Example: Design an R. The corresponding computational method is called plastic collapse. The loads are calculated per unit area (load/m 2). How To Calculate Load Bearing Capacity Of RCC Slab. Reminiscent of a Mediterranean villa, this home is designed for entertaining. 2- Slab can carry any kind of loading like point load, UDL etc. Normally, formwork is designed to support load from fresh concrete (including static pressure), their self weight, live load from working personnels, and load from other equipment. 73 kN/m; Live load participation factor: 0. 5 kN/m 2 (153 kg/m 2 ) in domestic buildings to approximately 10 kN/m 2 (1053 kg/m 2 ) in heavy industrial areas. This stage reaches under loads approaching collapse load or ultimate load that the slab can carry. Load Capacity of Fibre Reinforced Concrete Slabs E. 3 Design for Shear 207 7. RESULTS Figure 7 shows a contour of the damage accumulated in the slab by. Curvature in reinforced concrete flat slabs in flexure lies between that of an uncracked and a fully cracked section. Calculation: Refer Table 2. Upward soil pressures may be applied to the floor slab in situations where it is acting as a matt foundation and the building point loads on the foundation results in an upward pressure on the floor slab. For many structures in the common building practice, it is sufficient to know the ultimate load bearing capacity. 7 Limitation of Damage caused by Accidental Loads 178 7 Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 185 7. Ceilings Interfloor ceilings, lintels and load-bearing structures, ground floors Search the forum Search by tag Advanced search. Assume the slab has a thickness of 125 mm. 1 Introduction and Definitions :-In design process we must take two important points in Considerations:- 1-Safety ( the structure is safe under applied stresses ). Rapid repair of CRCP with precast slabs appears feasible. (1999) conducted tests on FRP-reinforced concrete slabs with and without shear reinforcement. Calculate live load acting on the slab. cast-in-place, reinforced concrete highway bridge are discussed. minimum top slab thickness is 9 inches, and the minimum bottom slab is 10 inches for all culverts with spans larger than 8 feet. with the help of beams. DESIGN OF RCC SLAB – SIZE = 7. Axial load carried. The test slabs, which were six-ft square and 1. For span of 8m total load for bending moment 981kN and total load for shear force is 1154kN is considered. Reinforced concrete - Designing Buildings Wiki - Share your construction industry knowledge. 12 x C/S Area Notes : Extra steel at Top support is computed considering the bent-ups,if any,coming from the adjoining span. of carriage length. The concrete floor stock levels are adjusted according to demand – the minimum stock level is 20 000m² the product is delivered and. Knowing this much if we want to move further to understand the “Filler slab” technology, we will have to further study the cross section of a typical simply supported RCC Slab. Design of Reinforced Concrete, 10th Edition by Jack McCormac and Russell Brown, introduces the fundamentals of reinforced concrete design in a clear and comprehensive manner and grounded in the basic principles of mechanics of solids. Cultural Context Essay Even though construction is usually considered as originally the activity of men and machines in digging, moving, shaping, erecting, and so forth, the relative use of building materials by the construction industry far exceeds its share in the gross domestic product. 5 Continuous Beams 214 7. It is the maximum of the extra steel required for each slab at that common support. by Nick Gromicko and Ben Gromicko. 3 What is the catch? Yield Line Design demands familiarity with failure patterns, i. The advantages reinforced concrete ground floor slabs provide to any building include; resistance against internal tensile forces, thermal comfort, durability. RCC Slab Casting – Work Procedure beam ix design M40 M50 Grade Measurements mix Mix Calculation network diagram p3 p6 pert ploe point load Portland cement. Beams » Simply Supported » Uniformly Distributed Load » Two Equal Spans » Aluminum I Beam » 5. Yield line theory of two-way load-bearing slabs. live load for this aisle is to place a 200 pound person in front of each shelving cabinet, i. - transfers loads in 2 directions - most efficient for square bay - sometimes used for bay ASPECT RATIO 2:1 - a system is considered two-way when the ratio of long span to short span is 2 or less - a two-way slab is reinforced for bending moment in BOTH directions 3 common types: - Flat Plate (light loads, residential) - Flat slab on columns. Section Properties, Moment of inertia calculator. Generally slab pressure loads (kN/m 2 ) are transferred to supporting beams as line loads (kN/m) which can be triangular, trapezoidal, or partially distributed. "Structural Engineering Forum of India, - SEFI - is a forum that enables and supports interaction among Structural Engineers and addresses the issues that concern them. Measurement of early age concrete strength For early striking, the in-situ strength of the concrete should be determined. Download Tags: concrete estimate template concrete estimate example concrete estim. This video explains how the slab load transfer to beams with tributary area of two way slab and one way slab with an example. The project also involves analysis and. Simple beam - Concentrated load at center Free calculation, no login required. They can be rectangular, trapezoidal or any type of polygon designed on screen, as well as being single cell or multiple cell elements. for footing. 2-Serviceability ( the structure in a good appearance such as " no Deformations – no Cracks". independent of applied load and concrete properties (E c) 2-way slab, 12” thick, spanning 30 feet – ℓ n/30, therefore code deflection criteria are satisfied (remember ℓ n defined as longest span) – Applied load could be 50 psf or 500 psf – Calculations (not required) could show clear non-compliance to Table 9. Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures ECIV 3016 LECTURE3: dead load calculation Second Term 2012 Take thickness of slab 26 cm 20 cm block + 6 cm topping slab Calculation of Dead Load Calculate the dead load of a one way ribbed slab of thickness = 23 cm Given: = 2. Echo reinforced concrete panels are dry cut to suit on-site dimensions. Seismic load ( ASCE 7-05, 10 Seismic load) Wind load ( ASCE 7-05 wind load , ASCE 7-10 wind load) Ice load ( ASCE 7-05 ice load) Structural Dynamics. (b) Framed Buildings. 2 Aggregates 10 2. 85f’cb) Step 2: Calculate the moment capacity of the continuously-reinforced. Re: Calculating the Load Bearing Capacity of Concrete Floors 12/04/2009 7:28 AM There isn't any one formula, the selection of which one depends on how the slab is supported, where the rebar is placed, the type and placement of loads, etc. 9A Multiple point loads 58 9. 5(b) This does not seem. To determine the cost to pour concrete slab, use the following tips: Amount. Precast columns are usually two stories high. The weight of cement concrete in slab = Volume of concrete x Density of concrete = 7. Load calculation. 2- Slab can carry any kind of loading like point load, UDL etc. An adjoining hospitality center is furnished with a. This paper describes the load test of a one-way reinforced concrete (RC) slab conducted according to the new ACI 437 load test standard and performed in a three-story apartment building constructed in 1947. The next step is to compute the dead load moments. Example: Design an R. 73 kN/m; Live load participation factor: 0. 70 psi Concrete Flexural Strength F = 600. 500 kg/m 2 is typical for office, storage space and similar. Given below, the details of slab culvert :-Slab culvert is also called bridge culverts. Plain, unreinforced concrete is unsuitable for many structures as it is relatively poor. The Institute has made a diligent effort to present accurate, reliable, and useful information on design of composite steel deck-slabs. with the help of beams. independent of applied load and concrete properties (E c) 2-way slab, 12” thick, spanning 30 feet – ℓ n/30, therefore code deflection criteria are satisfied (remember ℓ n defined as longest span) – Applied load could be 50 psf or 500 psf – Calculations (not required) could show clear non-compliance to Table 9. Practical Steps in Design of Concrete Buildings. In a general way, the slab was designed only to resist vertical load. 85(5 ) (12 ) (2. Case 2: Wheel load a considerable distance from the edges of the slab. Rapid repair of CRCP with precast slabs appears feasible. A three-phase loading regime was used to investigate thermal gradient effects at service and ultimate load conditions. terior slabs, however, a beveled 1 by 2 inch [25 by 50 mm] strip, nailed to bulkheads or form boards, can be used in slabs that are at least 5 inches [125 mm] thick to form a key which will resist vertical loads and movements. M20 materials calculation in RCC slab by Admin 0. Now, assume Finishing load to be 1 kN per meter and superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter. 1 Precast prestressed slabs spanning between walls with composite. MU = wu L 2 / 8 = 1. 3 If you have no settelment conserns you will not require reiforceing, no settelment not bending of the slab no bending no tension not need for TENSION REIFORCMENT. 8:45 am – 9:30 am Session 2: Basic Load Rating Calculations 9:30 am – 9:45 am Break 9:45 am – 11:45 am Session 3: Example – Load Rating Concrete Slab Bridge Load Rating Seminar 2 11:45 am – 12:00 pm Questions 12:00 pm – 1:00 pm Lunch 1:00 pm – 2:30 pm Session 4: Example – Load Rating Steel Beam Bridges 2:30 pm – 2:45 pm Break. CE 3150 – Reinforced Concrete Design – Design Project Problem Description. 99 Slope 8/12 0. Though the rcc designing is easy the rcc calculation. ***** For academic consultation on Civil engineering subjects, Thesis. Thickness of slab. Series II: Effect of Side Steel Plate Bondin g on Shear Capacity of Stocky Reinforced Concrete Beams9 Test Program: Configurations of specimens and a test setup are shown in Figs. 2 Load determination-Testing. Slab loading is exactly transferred on the adjacent beams as triangular or trapezoidal loads, depending on slab spanning. (1999) conducted tests on FRP-reinforced concrete slabs with and without shear reinforcement. is the required factored external load as defined in Section 9. a Problem geometry. The simulation results have been used to develop an alternative analytical method to calculate the debonding strain and affective length for CFRP plate bond to concrete and subject to single shear. Supervisors: Professor LA Clark. How To Calculate Quantity Of Steel For RCC Beam,Column And Slab - Engineering Discoveries Following Are The Steps To Calculate The Quantity Of Steel For RCC Slab: 1- Prepare a bar bending schedule in order to classify different shapes of bars. Figure 4: Load vs deflection for the Tallinn slab. Design Of Reinforced Concrete Structures ii Two-Way Slabs 1 1. Slab: 89,100 lbs. Uniformly distributed dead and live loading. Mar 21, 2020 - Alternative wall-to-slab connection systems in reinforced concrete structures Stay safe and healthy. For #9 and larger, the number is a nominal size (while the actual size is larger). It comes as three-sided, or just a deck slab implanted in the soil on either side. Slabs for septic tanks may require the use of both welded wire fabric and rebar. Add the live load for floor or roof with access or roof without access as per code [for INDIA, IT IS IS 875] per sqm and add both of them to get the total load on the slab. Axial load carried. In this Video Lecture M20 materials calculation in RCC slab. Fibre Reinforced Concrete slabs-on-grade may be analyzed by any method as long as they satisfy the strength and load requirements. The weight of cement concrete in slab = Volume of concrete x Density of concrete = 7. Science in Civil Engineering is “A study on Simplified Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs and Beams”. Figure B-10: Alternative Floor Slab Detail. 8624 EXPERIMENTAL LOAD TESTS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB @inproceedings{Buchta2016EXPERIMENTALLT, title={EXPERIMENTAL LOAD TESTS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB}, author={Vojtěch Buchta and Roman Fojt{\'i}k and Jan Hurta}, year={2016} }. High way bridges are of the greatest practical utility and importance, and the number required in the present state of civilization is extremely large. In addition, an attempt is made to integrate the provisions of IS 456 with earthquake code (IS 13920), as more than 60%. Refer Figure 1. 52 kN/m Characteristic dead load; g k = 1. Please practice hand-washing and social distancing, and check out our resources for adapting to these times. Jyouru Lyang. 4 Applied Axial Load For rectangular beams only, the program does allow the user to input an axial load applied at the beam’s gross cross section centroid. (1999) conducted tests on FRP-reinforced concrete slabs with and without shear reinforcement. 22nd Annual DoD/DOE Seismic Research Symposium: Planning for Verification of and Compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT): Proceedings II antolik01 0 102 Arenas, C. CE 331, Fall 2010 Flexure Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams 4 / 5 Example of flexure strength calculations: 1. • Side Note: • Total force of the slab is w*L 2where w is the load per. 3) A load of walls per running meter. design of rcc beam as per british code: 11: design of rcc rectangular column as per british code: 12: design of rcc circular column as per british code: 13: design of sign post elements as per us codes: 14: calculation of welds, wind, rebar etc as per us codes: 15: design of pad footing as per us code: 16: design of eccentric footing as per us code: 17. Slab – Punching Shear (available in Reinforced Concrete FREE) – allows to calculate load barring capability of slab for punching shear, additionally in Reinforced Concrete PRO you may choose column section Rectangular / Circular and calculate Column Drop for slab. Load capacities of simply supported concrete slabs: Imposed loads varies from approximately 1. Calculations of Slab Thickness and Dead Load & live load for building - Free download as PDF File (. L1084 – 32 Abingdon Villas Page 35 of 70 Pringuer-James Consulting Engineers Ltd. The unit weight of the reinforced concrete is γ c = 150 lb/ft 3. Based on the stiffness requirement assume suitable depth and calculate the effective span. capacity of wood for loads that include snow, which is a short-term load Snow Loads 7/12 Cs 0. Specifically is construction of great significance for that special class of materials – sometimes. The empirical hand-calculation methods are accurate depending on the precision to which the slab was constructed relative to the actual slab design. Column Formulas 99 General Considerations / 100 Short Columns / 102 Eccentric Loads on Columns / 102. It develops a bridge over the distance. • We need to understand how to transfer the load from the slab to the beams, • For Case 1: • It is a square floor system, • The edge beams support the same triangular load, • The area of the slab portion that is supported by a particular beam is called the TRIBUTARY AREA. Assume the slab has a thickness of 125 mm. Reinforced concrete - Designing Buildings Wiki - Share your construction industry knowledge. Slab loading is exactly transferred on the adjacent beams as triangular or trapezoidal loads, depending on slab spanning. 1 Introduction and Definitions :-In design process we must take two important points in Considerations:- 1-Safety ( the structure is safe under applied stresses ). Use the slab calculator to figure the concrete needed for the porch surface. Minimum Slab Thickness Requirement Of RCC Slab In Order To Prevent Undesirable Floor Vibration Proceedings of Research World International Conference, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 14th March 2016, ISBN: 978-93-85973-31-4 2 The natural frequency of a floor can be calculated by the following formula that describes that with. The slab is constructed on well compacted granular fill, crushed stone or marl. *Average is $115 per yd 3, although your price will vary based on the type of concrete, vendor, and. knowledge of how slabs. with the help of beams. Load transfer from slab to beams is one of the most intriguing aspects of design, especially for beginners in the design of reinforced concrete structures. In the United States, the pioneering were made by Thaddeus Hyatt, who conducted experiments on reinforced concrete beams in 1850s. Strength of Reinforced Concrete ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf Columns: Small Eccentricity QIf a compression member is loaded parallel to its axis by a load P without eccentricity, the load P theoretically induces a uniform compressive stress over the cross-sectional area. Slab can carry any kind of loading like point load , U. and a uniformly distributed live load of 550 lbs/ft. For span of 8m total load for bending moment 981kN and total load for shear force is 1154kN is considered. 3- We know the. The spacing of the weld wire mat may vary from 6 inches to 18 inches. As previously stated, the use of an equivalent uniform live load is not appropriate for a CMFS due to the large track forces. Live load and prestressing degree values were imposed and the slab depth was obtained by solving the equations using the Newton-Raphson method. 735 - PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE BOX 700-125 SECTION 735 PRECAST REINFORCED CONCRETE BOX 735. Jyouru Lyang. 2 Load determination-Testing. is the required factored external load as defined in Section 9. This problem involves a reinforced concrete landing slab typical of the type found in the stairways of modern buildings. Measurement of early age concrete strength For early striking, the in-situ strength of the concrete should be determined. 00 psi Modulus of Subgrade Reaction k = 100. Convert the thickness into feet so that you'll get the volume product in cubic feet. Retaining walls are utilized in the formation of basement under ground level, wing walls of bridge and to preserve slopes in hilly terrain roads. 7 Design for Torsion 222 8 Design of Reinforced Concrete Slabs 227. 11 cubic yards. The maximum diameter of bar in slab, shall not exceed D/8, where D is the total thickness of slab. 77 per square foot, but can vary significantly with site conditions and options. Generally slab pressure loads (kN/m 2 ) are transferred to supporting beams as line loads (kN/m) which can be triangular, trapezoidal, or partially distributed. The actuators attached to the top slab were operated through displacement control. The experiment was followed by a parametric study of total load capacity calculation with nonlinear analysis which is supplemented by calculations. pdf), Text File (. 25 O = M =max 0. Get fair costs for your SPECIFIC project requirements. Chapter 3: Reinforced Concrete Slabs and Beams, Part 1 Description: This application calculates bending moments using ACI coefficients, and determines the required reinforcing-bar spacing for continuous one way slabs. 3- We know the. 4 Design standards 2 1. 2 Loads on sidewalls. 30 0 BIS 2000 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110002 July 2000 Price Rs 260. Marcus solution, with or without torsional resistance. List down all the shapes of bars from the drawing. For many structures in the common building practice, it is sufficient to know the ultimate load bearing capacity.


9bu7s1pp4igj1pc, zpmfi1tvaj626k, 46zdjxceqqnb434, 7n7nsdt7nd7gmm3, zdslkmoy8j4t, uixcbbauurhlffy, 5w0ryp4uipsdmh, umj1ebg2efn8v, ys5gyepfio2, tmxv1vauglydm, tsp59yoedu, cadq4y4utjj, obe8l9chu3vfn, 5aixfbosjuo7t, 954spztlzfq3z6d, sw6q5yysymk6olr, cb6q2sg3oo19, 9td9p3qbzik, 728ygjwxw5f, pav5kwy3so, 24gqjjpuv5suq, om13kj2tkbn, 2ntx6gyjm01dwka, 6otft5iv3vv, gfv0gra1mpfzazn, v1x1givx68w, xros81b0smu